In the automobile industry, necessity has repeatedly been the mother of invention. Such was the case in 1956, when Britain was hit by a fuel shortage brought on by the closure of the Suez Canal, through which most of the country’s oil imports passed. In direct response to this energy crisis and realizing that such an event could easily happen again, British Motor Corporation’s chairman Leonard Lord ordered the development of a small and fuel efficient economy car. After a remarkably short development period, BMC’s efforts were brought to fruition in 1959 when the company introduced a car that would become a British automotive icon: the Mini.
The Mini (initially marketed as the Austin Se7en and Morris Mini Minor) was the brainchild of BMC’s famed automotive engineer Alec Issigonis. He designed it as an economy car that made the maximum use of a minimum amount of space. The Mini’s exterior was designed to fit within a box measuring 10 x 4 x 4 feet. Its interior space was maximized by mounting the engine transversely, equipping the car with front-wheel drive, and placing its four-speed manual transmission in the oil sump. Interior space was further increased by placing wheels on the corners and giving the car four-wheel independent suspension, which utilized rubber cone springs. To save on development and construction costs, the Mini was fitted with an already existing power plant, an 848 cc version of BMC’s A Series inline four engine.
In terms of performance, the Mini had a number of characteristics that were very desirable for its time. BMC claimed it to be capable of a top speed of over 70 miles per hour and fuel economy of up to 50 miles per gallon of gasoline. In addition to being lively and economical, drivers also discovered that the Mini was blessed with outstanding road holding abilities. Before long, Minis were being used in racing and rallying. This led BMC to develop two performance variants of the car in collaboration with Cooper Car Company, then the reigning Formula 1 World Constructors Champion: the Mini Cooper and Mini Cooper S. The Mini Coopers went on to become legends in their own right, winning numerous races and rallies, including the prestigious Monte Carlo Rally (1964, 1965, 1967).
In the course of its extraordinarily long production life (1959-2000), the Mini became an enormously popular and influential car. Sold under the Austin, Morris, and Mini nameplates, more than 5 million examples were built by BMC and its successors British Motor Holdings, British Leyland Motor Corporation, and Rover Group. It also left a long-lasting impact upon automobile design. The transverse engine and front-wheel drive layout pioneered by the Mini was widely copied by other automobile manufacturers and still used on most small economy cars to this day.
Along the way, the Mini also became a British automotive icon. In its home country, the Mini was a fashion statement of sorts and became a symbol of “Swinging London” during the 1960s. A number of British pop culture luminaries were proud owners of Minis, including actor Peter Sellers and several members of the Beatles. Minis also featured prominently in a number of British movies and television programs, including The Italian Job (1969) and Mr. Bean (1990-1995).
The last “classic” Mini rolled off the assembly line on October 4, 2000. It was replaced by the MINI, built by BMW, which is a common sight on American roads today.
850 is your lucky number, Austin: Trade Catalogs: Specific Models, Seven, n.d., Z. Taylor Vinson Collection, Hagley Museum and Library
“Cooper Car Company”
Georgano, Nick, ed. The Beaulieu Encyclopedia of The Automobile Volume 1: A-L; Norwich, England: The Stationery Office, 2000, p. 107-108.
Georgano, Nick, ed. The Beaulieu Encyclopedia of The Automobile Volume 2: M-Z. Norwich, England: The Stationery Office, 2000, p. 1073.
Kenton Jaehnig is the Project Archivist/Cataloger for the Z. Taylor Vinson Collection at Hagley Museum and Library.